Inflammation Models and Immunodiagnostics

Our team develops rapid and easy-to-handle systems for the analysis and modelling of immunological and genetic processes in the fields of transplantation, inflammation research, and tumor biology. Our main foci are articular and lung diseases, which are investigated through the application of novel immunoassays, genetic analyses, complex cell culture models, and animal experiments.

Establishing a model for chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Histological HE stain to provide an overview of the kidneys. Aa and Ab healthy animals. Ba and Bb animals with induced CKD
© Fraunhofer IZI

Histological HE stain to provide an overview of the kidneys. Aa and Ab healthy animals. Ba and Bb animals with induced CKD.

Von Kossa stain on aorta cross-sections. Aa and Ab healthy animals. Ba and Bb animals with induced CKD
© Fraunhofer IZI

Von Kossa stain on aorta cross-sections. Aa and Ab healthy animals. Ba and Bb animals with induced CKD.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is the progressive, non-reversible loss of glomerular functional units of the kidney. Worldwide ≥ 2 million humans (2011) are kept alive through kidney replacement therapies, which represents only 10 percent of all final CKD patients whose organs need to be replaced. Consequently, preventing or delaying the CKD progression from stage G I-G IV/A I-A II to the final stage G V and A III by drug or dietary therapies is relevant worldwide from a medical and economic perspective. The efficacy and safety of these drug or dietary therapies has to be tested preclinically in in vivo models. Our group established such an in vivo model for a lethal or moderate CKD.

We injected different concentrations of adenine into six-month-old WISTAR rats for several weeks. This injection model is less stressful to the individual animal than other models regarding the indication CKD. The rats used are adult and are held for a relatively long time in our animal house. Therefore, we invested in better housing conditions for the animals and got a two-floor cage system appropriate for large, adult rats.

In the model, we could induce several pathological changes similar to the ones in patients with CKD. Dependent on the adenine concentration, we were able to induce symptoms indicating a final, lethal CKD or symptoms indicating a moderate kidney disease similar CKD stadium 3 in patients. In this context, we could develop new imaging techniques as well as test first diets.

From now on, this established model will be available to test different therapeutical approaches to help CKD patients worldwide.

Establishing and characterizing the humanized mouse

Human stem cells are ob­tained from umbilical cord blood. This involves the blood being separated by means of density gradient centrifugation. The first stage of this separation process is shown in the image.
© Fraunhofer IZI

Human stem cells are ob­tained from umbilical cord blood. This involves the blood being separated by means of density gradient centrifugation. The first stage of this separation process is shown in the image.

Animal models have long since been an important instrument in biomedical research. They are used on the one hand in basic research, and on the other for testing new therapeutic agents, thus proving to be essential from an ethical point of view. Nevertheless, it is quite common that the findings resulting from these models are not able to be applied in the human context. For instance, even if a drug has not caused side effects during animal testing, severe side effects may still occur in the case of humans during the clinical testing period. In less serious cases, there is merely a difference between the pathological mechanism that causes a disease in the animal model and the actual human pathological mechanism. In an effort to avoid these inadequacies, the concept of the humanized mouse was developed in the 1980s. This model is based on the idea of recreating a human immune system in a useful format in the laboratory.

The NOD-scid Il2r-gamma-0 mouse strain produces excellent insights into the growth of a human stem cell transplant. These animals are highly immune deficient. The mice are therefore less able to respond to the human stem cells, rendering a rejection of the transplant unlikely. Furthermore, a functional human immune system develops in the mouse from the stem cells which are usually extracted from umbilical cord blood.

In order to determine whether the existing human cells are indeed functional, several parameters are tested. Different, activated immune cells have been found during testing. Moreover, human cytokines and antibodies can be detected. The humanized mouse thus opens up a broad range of research areas. On the one hand, it can be regarded as a contribution to the research of malign tumor diseases and HIV or Dengue virus infections. On the other hand, it can be vital for gaining a new understanding of the symptoms of sepsis. Despite the fact that establishing a new model is an extensive procedure that is dependent upon a number of variables, it offers an excellent opportunity to gain a more comprehensive understanding of human disease mechanisms and will shed light on several topic areas due to its flexible use.

In case of rheumatoid arthritis

Dense cellular infiltration of inflamed joints in collagen-induced arthritis in mice.
© Fraunhofer IZI

Dense cellular infiltration of inflamed joints in collagen-induced arthritis in mice.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the inflammatory joint disease with the highest incidence in western populations and is very painful for the patient. Primary therapy for RA currently consists of the treatment of inflammatory symptoms (e.g. using so-called TNF blockers). However, the pattern of the disease indicates autoimmunological causes, wherein inherent substances such as articular cartilage and cells of the immune system are attacked. It has not yet been clarified how this destruction of cartilage which define rheumatic diseases, can be stopped or even reversed; such a therapy would constitute a complete cure of RA. In addition to already existing animal models and respective investigative research, the Fraunhofer IZI can also offer in vitro models, wherein anti-destructive mechanisms of action and grades of activity of RA medications are observed in a test tube in direct interaction with human cells. In the medium term, this targeted screening of active agents promises the identification of optimized therapeutics.

  • ACOMED Statistik
  • AID Technische Dokumentationen GmbH & Co. KG
  • Generic Assays GmbH
  • Kapelan Bio-Imaging GmbH
  • Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine, Solna
  • Nuvo Research GmbH
  • University of Gondar, Department of Medicine
  • University of Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine
  • University of Leipzig, Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine (TRM) Leipzig

  • Rodewohl A, Scholbach J, Leichsenring A, Köberle M, Lange F. Age-dependent cellular reactions of the human immune system of humanized NOD scid gamma mice on LPS stimulus. Innate Immun. 2017 Apr;23(3):258-275. DOI Epub 2017 Feb 5.
  • Tuncel J, Haag S, Hoffmann MH, Yau AC, Hultqvist M, Olofsson P, Bäcklund J, Nandakumar KS, Weidner D, Fischer A, Leichsenring A, Lange F, Haase C, Lu S, Gulko PS, Steiner G, Holmdahl R. Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis (I): Pristane-Induced Arthritis in the Rat. PLoS One. 2016 May 26;11(5):e0155936. DOI eCollection 2016.
  • Flemmig J, Schwarz P, Bäcker I, Leichsenring A, Lange F, Arnhold J. Fast and Specific Assessment of the Halogenating Peroxidase Activity in Leukocyte-enriched Blood Samples. J Vis Exp. 2016 Jul 28;(113). DOI
  • Leichsenring A, Bäcker I, Furtmüller PG, Obinger C, Lange F, Flemmig J. Long-Term Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on Pristane-Induced Arthritis (PIA) in Female Dark Agouti Rats. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 29;11(3):e0152518. DOI eCollection 2016.
  • Flemmig J, Leichsenring A, Lange F. Myeloperoxidase – ein neuer Marker zur Erforschung von Entzündungen? Biospektrum (2015) 21: 725. DOI
  • Flemmig J, Schwarz P, Bäcker I, Leichsenring A, Lange F, Arnhold J. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Dec 15;415:46-56. DOI Epub 2014 Sep 28.
  • Flemmig J, Schwarz P, Bäcker I, Leichsenring A, Lange F, Arnhold J. Fast and Specific Assessment of the Halogenating Peroxidase Activity in Leukocyte-enriched Blood Samples. J. Vis. Exp. (2016), e54484,  View video paper
  • Flemmig J, Schwarz P, Bäcker I, Leichsenring A, Lange F, Arnhold J. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Dec 15;415:46-56. DOI Epub 2014 Sep 28.
  • Fricke S, Rothe K, Hilger N, Ackermann M, Oelkrug C, Fricke C, Schönfelder U, Niederwieser D, Emmrich F, Sack U. Allogeneic bone marrow grafts with high levels of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells can lead to engraftment failure. Cytometry A. 81 (2012), 6, S. 476-88. DOI
  • Fueldner C, Mittag A, Knauer J, Biskop M, Hepp P, Scholz R, Wagner U, Sack U, Emmrich F, Tárnok A, Lehmann J. Identification and evaluation of novel synovial tissue biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis by laser scanning cytometry. Arthritis Res Ther. 14 (2012), 1:R8. DOI
  • Hinz D, Bauer M, Röder S, Olek S, Huehn J, Sack U, Borte M, Simon JC, Lehmann I, Herberth G; for the LINA study group. Cord blood Tregs with stable FOXP3 expression are influenced by prenatal environment and associated with atopic dermatitis at the age of one year. Allergy. 67 (2012), 3, S. 380 - 389. DOI
  • Lange F, Sack U. Gelenkentzündungen : Modellsysteme für die Arthritisforschung. GIT Spezial BIOforum 1/2012, S. 28-30. GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift 56 (2012), 6, S. 459-461. Article
  • Leichsenring A, Lange F. Tiermodelle in der präklinischen Forschung. GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift 56 (2012), 12, S. 848–849. Article
  • Scholbach J, Schulz A, Westphal F, Egger D, Wege AK, Patties I, Köberle M, Sack U, Lange F. Comparison of hematopoietic stem cells derived from fresh and cryopreserved whole cord blood in the generation of humanized mice. PLoS One. 7 (2012), 10:e46772. DOI
  • Tessema B, Beer J, Emmrich F, Sack U, Rodloff AC. Analysis of gene mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 12 (2012) :37. DOI
  • Tessema B, Beer J, Emmrich F, Sack U, Rodloff AC. First- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Northwest Ethiopia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 16 (2012), 6 S. 805-11. DOI
  • Fangmann J, Kathrin Al-Ali H, Sack U, Kamprad M, Tautenhahn HM, Faber S, Hauss J, Niederwieser D, Lindner T, Bachmann A. Kidney transplant from the same donor without maintenance immunosuppression after previous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Am J Transplant. 11 (2011), 1, S. 156 - 62. DOI
  • Tessema B, Beer J, Emmrich F, Sack U, Rodloff AC. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia. J Clin Microbiol. 49 (2011), 7, S. 2557 - 61. DOI
  • Fricke S, Fricke C, Oelkrug C, Hilger N, Schönfelder U, Kamprad M, Lehmann J, Boltze J, Emmrich F, Sack U. Characterization of murine non-adherent bone marrow cells leading to recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 67 (2010), 23, S. 4095-4106.
  • Gessner C, Rechner B, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Hoheisel G, Sack U, Ruschpler P, Wirtz H. Angiogenic markers in breath condensate identify non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer, 68 (2010), 2, S. 177-184.
  • Hemdan NY, Birkenmeier G, Wichmann G, Abu El-Saad A, Krieger T, Conrad K, Sack U. Interleukin-17-producing T helper cells in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 9 (2010), 11, S. 785-792.
  • Hinz D, Simon JC, Maier-Simon C, Milkova L, Röder S, Sack U, Borte M, Lehmann I, Herberth G. Reduced maternal regulatory T cell numbers and increased T helper type 2 cytokine production are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E in cord blood. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 40 (2010), 3, S. 419-426.
  • Lindner I. et al. alpha 2-Macroglobulin Inhibits the Malignant Properties of Astrocytoma Cells by Impeding beta-Catenin Signaling. Cancer Research, v. 70 (2010), no. 1, p. 277-287.
  • Tessema B, Biadglegne F, Mulu A, Getachew A, Emmrich F, Sack U. Magnitude and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. AIDS research and therapy, 7 (2010), 2, 8 S. DOI
  • Tessema B, Yismaw G, Kassu A, Amsalu A, Mulu A, Emmrich F, Sack U. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: declining trends over a period of five years. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10 (2010), 111, 7 S. DOI
  • Borte S, Liebert UG, Borte M, Sack U. Efficacy of measles, mumps and rubella revaccination in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with methotrexate and etanercept. Rheumatology, 48 (2009), 2, S. 144-148.
  • Borte S, Pan-Hammarstrom Q, Liu C, Sack U, Borte M, Wagner U, Graf D, Hammarström L. Interleukin-21 restores immunoglobulin production ex vivo in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgA deficiency. Blood, 114 (2009), 19, S. 4089-4098.
  • Fricke S, Ackermann M, Stolzing A, Schimmelpfennig C, Hilger N, Jahns J, Hildebrandt G, Emmrich F, Ruschpler P, Pösel C, Kamprad M, Sack U. Allogeneic non-adherent bone marrow cells facilitate hematopoietic recovery but do not lead to allogeneic engraftment. PLoS One (2009), Jul 7, 4(7), e6157.
  • Herberth G, Gubelt R, Röder S, Krämer U, Schins RP, Diez U, Borte M, Heinrich J, Wichmann HE, Herbarth O, Lehmann I, LISA plus study group. Increase of inflammatory markers after indoor renovation activities: the LISA birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immu, 20 (2009), 6, S. 563-570.
  • Kirsten H, Petit-Teixeira E, Scholz M, Hasenclever D, Hantmann H, Heider D, Wagner U, Sack U, Hugo Teixeira V, Prum B, Burkhardt J, Pierlot C, Emmrich F, Cornelis F, Ahnert P. Association of MICA with rheumatoid arthritis independent of known HLA-DRB1 risk alleles in a family-based and a case control study. Arthritis Res Ther, 11 (2009), 3, R60.
  • Krämer U, Sugiri D, Ranft U, Krutmann J, von Berg A, Berdel D, Behrendt H, Kuhlbusch T, Hochadel M, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, GINIplus and LISAplus study groups. Eczema, respiratory allergies, and traffic-related air pollution in birth cohorts from small-town areas. J Dermatol Sci, 56 (2009), 2, S. 99-105.
  • Sack U, Conrad K, Csernok E, Frank I, Hiepe F, Krieger T, Kromminga A, Landenberg P, Messer G, Witte T, Mierau R, die deutsche EASI-Gruppe (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative). Autoantikörpernachweis mittels indirekter Immunfluoreszenz an HEp-2-Zellen. Deut Med Wochenschr, 134 (2009), 24, S. 1278-1282.
  • Sack U, Conrad K, Csernok E, Frank I, Hiepe F, Krieger T, Kromminga A, von Landenberg P, Messer G, Witte T, Mierau R, German EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative). Autoantibody detection using indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1173 (2009), S. 166-73.
  • Simon P, Burkhardt U, Sack U, Kaisers UX, Muensterer OJ. Inflammatory Response Is No Different in Children Randomized to Laparoscopic or Open Appendectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv A, 19 (2009), Suppl 1, S. S71-S76.
  • Tessema B, Muche A, Bekele A, Reissig D, Emmrich F, Sack U. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study. BMC Public Health, 4 (2009), 371.
  • Bold A, Wurth R, Keller T, Trahorsch T, Voigt P, Schubert S, Sack U. Low-cost enumeration of CD4+ T cells using a density-based negative selection method (RosettaSepTM) for the monitoring of HIV-infected individuals in non-OECD countries. Cytom Part A 73 (2008), 1, S. 28-35.
  • Gessner C, Dihazi H, Brettschneider S, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Eschrich K, Keller T, Engelmann L, Sack U, Wirtz H. Presence of cytokeratins in exhaled breath condensate of mechanical ventilated patients. Resp Med 102 (2008), 2, S. 299-306.
  • Hollenbach M, Hintersdorf A, Huse K, Sack U, Bigl M, Groth M, Santel T, Buchold M, Lindner I, Otto A, Sicker D, Schellenberger D, Almendinger J, Pustowoit B, Birkemeyer C, Platzer M, Oerlecke I, Hemdan NY, Birkenmeier G. Ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulate expression of immune receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 76 (2008), 5, S. 631-644.
  • Hoppe A, Kamprad M, Wegmann C, Wötzel M, Hauss J, Emmrich F, Fangmann J, Sack U. Natürliche Killerzellen und natürliche Killer-T-Zellen bei Nierentransplanta­tion. Laboratoriumsmedizin 32 (2008), 3, S. 140-147.
  • Kyaw WO, Uhlig A, Koller G, Sack U, Schusser GF. Freies Hämoglobin und Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor-Alpha im Blut von Pferden mit Kolik oder akuter Kolitis. Berl Munch Tierarztl W 121 (2008), 11-12, S. 440-445.
  • Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J, Brockow I, Koletzko S, Krämer U, Behrendt H, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; GINI Study Group; LISA Study Group. Atopic diseases, allergic sensitization, and exposure to trafficrelated air pollution in children. Am J Resp Crit Care M 177 (2008), 12, S. 1331-1337.
  • Pierzchalski A, Robitzki A, Mittag A, Emmrich F, Sack U, O'Connor JE, Bocsi J, Tarnok A. Cytomics and nanobioengineering. Cytom Part B-Clin Cy 74 (2008), 6, S. 416-426.
  • Sack U, Emmrich F. Monoklonale Antikörper: Prinzipien, Herstellung, Anwendung und Nebenwirkungen. Internist 49 (2008), 8, S. 921-928.
  • Santel T, Pflug G, Hemdan NY, Schafer A, Hollenbach M, Buchold M, Hintersdorf A, Lindner I, Otto A, Bigl M, Oerlecke I, Hutschenreuter A, Sack U, Huse K, Groth M, Birkemeyer C, Schellenberger W, Gebhardt R, Platzer M, Weiss T, Vijayalakshmi MA, Kruger M, Birkenmeier G. Curcumin inhibits glyoxalase 1: a possible link to its antiinflammatory and anti-tumor activity. PLoS ONE (2008), 3, S. e3508.
  • Schoefer Y, Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schäfer T, Krämer U, Schaaf B, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA study group. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 211 (2008), 3-4, S. 367-73.
  • Treese C, Mittag A, Lange F, Tarnok A, Loesche A, Emmrich F, Lehmann J, Sack U. Characterization of fibroblasts responsible for cartilage destruction in arthritis. Cytom Part A 73 (2008), 3, S. 351-360.
  • Ueberham E, Lindner R, Kamprad M, Hiemann R, Hilger N, Woithe B, Mahn D, Cross M, Sack U, Gebhardt R, Arendt T, Ueberham U. Oval cell proliferation in p16INK4a expressing mouse liver is triggered by chronic growth stimuli. J Cell Mol Med 12 (2008), 2, S. 622-638.
  • Weimann A, Eisele RM, Pawellek S, Hippler-Benscheid M, Rüggeberg A, Cammann H, Radke C, Müller C, Klupp J, Sack U, Lun A. Diagnostic value of peripheral blood markers for acute rejection in LTX-patients receiving anti IL-2R antibodies. Laboratoriumsmedizin 32 (2008), 3, S. 148-157.
  • Willms H, Wiechmann V, Sack U, Gillissen A. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica: A rare cause of chronic cough with haemoptysis. Cough 4 (2008), 4, 4S.
  • Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, von Berg A, Diez U, Borte M, Kraemer U, Herbarth O, Behrendt H, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J; LISA Study Group. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birth cohort study LISA. Pediatrics (2008), 121, S. e44-52.
  • Fangmann J, Wegmann C, Hoppe A, Martin P, Sack U, Harms J, Faber S, Emmrich F. Characterization of dendritic cell subsets in patients undergoing renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 39 (2007), 10, S. 3101-3104.
  • Gebauer CM, Lenk H, Friedrich W, Sack U, Schuster V. Severe clinical course of Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome - clinical course, hematologic, immunologic and genetic findings. Kinder- und Jugendmedizin (2007), 7, S. 39-44.
  • Gessner C, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Hoheisel G, Gillissen A, Sack U, Wirtz H. Breath Condensate nitrite correlates with hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Resp Med 101 (2007), 11, S. 2271-2278.
  • Hemdan NY, Emmrich F, Faber S, Lehmann J, Sack U. Alterations of Th1/Th2 reac tivity by heavy metals - Possible consequences include induction of autoimmune diseases. Ann NY Acad Sci (2007), 1109, S. 129-137.
  • Hemdan NY, Lehmann I, Wichmann G, Lehmann J, Emmrich F, Sack U. Immunomodulation by mercuric chloride in vitro: application of different cell activation pathways. Clin Exp Immunol 148 (2007), 2, S. 325-37.
  • Hiemann R, Hilger N, Michel J, Nitschke J, Bohm A, Anderer U, Weigert M, Sack U. Automatic analysis of immunofluorescence patterns of HEp-2 cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 1109 (2007), 1, S. 358-371.
  • Saalbach A, Klein C, Sleeman J, Sack U, Kauer F, Gebhardt C, Averbeck M, Anderegg U, Simon JC. Dermal fibroblasts induce maturation of dendritic cells. J Immunol 178 (2007), 8, S. 4966-4974.
  • Sack U, Bocsi J, Tarnok A. Importance of cytometry for clinical diagnostics and therapy. Transfus Med Hemoth 34 (2007), 3, S. 153-154.
  • Sack U, Conrad K, Csernok E, Frank I, Haass M, Krieger T, Seyfarth M, Schlosser U, Schmidt R, Witte T. Standardization of autoimmune diagnostics in Germany: activities of the German group in the European Autoimmune Standardization Initiative. Ann NY Acad Sci (2007), 1109, S. 31-36.
  • Sack U, Gerling F, Tarnok A. Age-related lymphocyte subset changes in the peripheral blood of healthy children - A metastudy. Transfus Med Hemoth 34 (2007), 3, S. 176-181.
  • Savkovic V, Gantzer H, Reiser U, Selig L, Gaiser S, Sack U, Kloppel G, Mossner J, Keim V, Horn F, Bodeker H. Clusterin is protective in pancreatitis through anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Biochem Bioph Res Co 356 (2007), 2, S. 431-437.
  • Schwenk M, Sack U, Esser C, Klein R. Diagnostic relevance of the determination of lymphocyte subpopulations in environmental medicine. Int J Hyg Envir Heal 210 (2007), 2, S. 177-198.
  • Birkenmeier G, Nicklisch S, Pockelt C, Mossie A, Steger V, Glaser C, Hauschildt S, Usbeck E, Huse K, Sack U, Bauer M, Schafer A. Polymyxin B-conjugated alpha 2-macroglobulin as an adjunctive therapy to sepsis: modes of action and impact on lethality. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 318 (2006), 2, S. 762-771.
  • Bocsi J, Lenz D, Mittag A, Varga VS, Molnar B, Tulassay Z, Sack U, Tarnok A. Automated four-color analysis of leukocytes by scanning fluorescence microscopy using quantum dots. Cytom Part A, 69 (2006), 3, S. 131-134.
  • Bocsi J, Mittag A, Sack U, Gerstner AO, Barten MJ, Tarnok A. Novel aspects of systems biology and clinical cytomics. Cytom Part A, 69 (2006), 3, S. 105-108.
  • Dietrich A, Stockmar C, Aust G, Endesfelder S, Guetz A, Sack U, Schoenfelder M, Hauss J. Intraoperative subcutaneous or intrasplenic vaccination with modified autologous tumor cells leads to enhanced survival in a mouse tumor model. J Cancer Res Clin, 132 (2006), 6, S. 379-388.
  • Funke B, Jungel A, Schastak S, Wiedemeyer K, Emmrich F, Sack U. Transdermal photodynamic therapy-a treatment option for rheumatic destruction of small joints? Laser Surg Med, 38 (2006), 9, S. 866-874.
  • Hemdan NY, Emmrich F, Sack U, Wichmann G, Lehmann J, Adham K, Lehmann I. The in vitro immune modulation by cadmium depends on the way of cell activation. Toxicology 222 (2006), 1-2, S. 37-45.
  • Hiemann R, Hilger N, Sack U, Weigert M. Objective quality evaluation of fluorescence images to optimize automatic image acquisition. Cytom Part A, 69 (2006), 3, S. 182-184.
  • Lange F, Hartl S, Ungethuem U, Kuban RJ, Hammerschmidt S, Faber S, Morawietz L, Wirtz H, Emmrich F, Krenn V, Sack U. Anti-TNF effects on destructive fibroblasts depend on mechanical stress. Scand J Immunol, 64 (2006), 5, S. 544-553.
  • Mittag A, Lenz D, Bocsi J, Sack U, Gerstner AO, Tarnok A. Sequential photobleaching of fluorochromes for polychromatic slide-based cytometry. Cytom Part A, 69 (2006), 3, S. 139-141.
  • Sack U, Biereder B, Elouahidi T, Bauer K, Keller T, Trobs RB. Diagnostic value of blood inflammatory markers for detection of acute appendicitis in children. BMC Surg 6 (2006), 15.
  • Sack U, Scheibe R, Wötzel M, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Emmrich F, Hoheisel G, Wirtz H, Gessner C. Multiplex analysis of cytokines in exhaled breath condensate. Cytom Part A, 69 (2006), 3, S. 169-172.
  • Selig L, Sack U, Gaiser S, Kloppel G, Savkovic V, Mossner J, Keim V, Bodeker H. Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen. BMC Gastroenterol (2006), 6, S. 30ff.
  • Gessner C, Scheibe R, Wötzel M, Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Engelmann L, Hoheisel G, Sack U. Exhaled breath condensate cytokine patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Resp Med, 99 (2005), 10, S. 1229-1240.
  • Hammerschmidt S, Kuhn H, Sack U, Schlenska A, Gessner C, Gillissen A, Wirtz H. Mechanical stretch alters alveolar type II cell mediator release toward a proinflammatory pattern. Am J Resp Cell Mol, 33 (2005), 2, S. 203-210.
  • Hemdan NY, Emmrich F, Adham K, Wichmann G, Lehmann I, El-Massry A, Ghoneim H, Lehmann J, Sack U. Dose-dependent modulation of the in vitro cytokine production of human immune competent cells by lead salts. Toxicol Sci, 86 (2005), 1, S. 75-83.
  • Lange F, Bajtner E, Caspar T, Rintisch C, Nandakumar KS, Sack U, Holmdahl R. Methotrexate ameliorates T cell dependent autoimmune arthritis and encephalomyelitis but not antibody induced or fibroblast induced arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis, 64 (2005), 4, S. 599-605.
  • Lenz D, Barten MJ, Hiller S, Tarnok A, Sack U. Regenerative and predictive medicine of cardiovascular disease: the 9th Leipziger Workshop and the 2nd International Workshop on slide based cytometry. Cytom Part A, 64 (2005), 2, S. 110-114.
  • Mittag A, Lenz D, Gerstner AO, Sack U, Steinbrecher M, Koksch M, Raffael A, Bocsi J, Tarnok A. Polychromatic (eight-color) slide-based cytometry for the phenotyping of leukocyte, NK, and NKT subsets. Cytom Part A, 65 (2005), 2, S. 103-115.
  • Moche M, Hui DSC, Huse K, Chan KS, Choy DKL, Tannapfel A, Scholz GH, Gosse H, Sack U, Hoheisel G. Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion. Pneumologie, 59 (2005), 8, S. 523-528.
  • Sack U, Hirth A, Funke B, Wiedemeyer K, Lange F, Troltzsch M, Tannapfel A, Gebhardt R, Emmrich F, Lehmann J. A novel model of fibroblast-mediated cartilage destruction. Scand J Immunol, 61 (2005), 1, S. 18-28.
  • Sack U, Hoffmann M, Zhao XJ, Chan KS, Hui DS, Gosse H, Engelmann L, Schauer J, Emmrich F, Hoheisel G. Vascular endothelial growth factor in pleural effusions of different origin. Eur Respir J, 25 (2005), 4, S. 600-604.
  • Sack U, Sehm B, Kahlenberg F, Murr A, Lehmann J, Tannapfel A, Uberla K, Moessner A, Dietrich A, Emmrich F, Lange F, Jungel A, Braun JM, Anderegg U. Investigation of arthritic joint destruction by a novel fibroblastbased model. Ann NY Acad Sci 1051 (2005), 1, S. 291-298.
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